Key Points

  • Significant developments of 2019 included attacks in Pulwama, Kashmir; Christchurch, New Zealand; the Easter Sunday bombings in Sri Lanka; and shootings in El Paso and at Naval Air Station Pensacola in the United States.
  • Progress continues to be made in counter-terrorism (CT). In 2019, the number of attacks in the region continued to decline; numerous terrorist leaders were eliminated; international cooperation advanced; and several countries invested in ‘soft’ CT, including reintegration programs and negotiations.
  • Looking ahead, terrorism may reignite in reaction to sensitive political issues in the region, including rising Hindu nationalism in India; China’s policies in Xinjiang; and the Rohingya issue in Myanmar and Bangladesh.
  • Other notable concerns for the future include foreign fighters; ‘home-grown’ cells and lone-actors; growing right-wing terrorism; terrorist activities in cyberspace; and potential attacks involving chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) materials.
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